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Making a Sand FilterMaking a Sand Filter Slow Sand Filters If you use surface water sources for household use, slow sand filtration - or more accurately biologically active filtration - may be an effective choice for water treatment. Slow sand filters can remove up to 99.99 percent of turbidity, bacteria, viruses, and Giardia lamblia cysts without the need for...

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Building a Survival KitBuilding a Survival Kit 1. COMPONENTS FOR A SURVIVAL KIT a. The environment is the key to the types of items you will need in your survival kit. How much equipment you put in your kit depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit on your body will have to be much smaller than one carried in a vehicle. b. Always layer your survival kit, keeping...

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Remember the Word SurvivalRemember the Word Survival SURVIVAL ACTIONS (From Survival Manual; John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, Ft. Bragg, NC) 1-1. The following paragraphs expand on the meaning of each letter of the word survival. Study and remember what each letter signifies because some day you may have to make the word work for you. S—Size Up the...

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Finding Water in Survival SituationsFinding Water in Survival Situations Directly associated with food is water. These two are essential to life. People can go up to 60 days without solid food. You will be tormented by hunger, but you can’t survive without water. Many different forms of life are certain indicators of [caption id="attachment_48" align="alignright" width="300"] Are you sure...

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Long Term Food StorageLong Term Food Storage The home production and storage program is an integral part of welfare services but is undertaken individually, according to the needs of each member or family. It's application, therefore, differs in relation to circumstances, but [caption id="attachment_73" align="alignright" width="300"] Got food?[/caption] the...

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Properly Drying Foods

Category : Equipment, Food

Drying or dehydratiowww.prepperideas.com - drying foodn, the oldest method of food preservation, is particularly successful in the hot, dry climates found in much of New Mexico. Quite simply, drying reduces moisture necessary for bacterial growth that eventually causes
deterioration. Successful dehydration depends upon a slow steady heat supply to assure that food is dried from the inside to the outside. Drying is also an inexact art. Size of pieces, relative moisture, and the method selected all affect the time required to dehydrate a food adequately.

Methods of Drying
Foods may be sun dried with or without a solar dehydrator, in a gas or electric oven, or with a portable electric dehydrator. Dehydrators with thermostats provide better control over poor weather conditions and food quality than sun drying.
An effective solar dehydrator is the shelf above the back seat of a car. Clotheslines are another popular drying rack for ears of corn and strips of jerky. Colorful red chile ristras hung from vigas are practical as well as decorative.

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Household Composting

Category : Food

 

 

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All types of shredded paper are great for the compost pile, as are a number of other kitchen items which you may not have considered. Check out this list of common household items that will give your compost pile a kick…and save space in the landfill at the same time:

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Fishing Worm Tips

Category : Equipment, Food

raising-red-worms-e1321632704411This article focuses on those who are beginner to novice anglers. Catching worms (nightcrawlers, and the common “redworm”) can be both easy and fun. Nightcrawlers thrive best in warm, moist earth or other areas where compost like earth is abundant. Nightcrawlers come out at night, and can be easily located using a dim source of light (flashlight with a plastic colored cover, or a light stick). Look for nightcrawlers after dark, under vegetation, around compost piles, parks, or anywhere that is damp. Nightcrawlers do not bite, but may feel cold and slimy to the touch. When you locate one, grasp it by the top quickly, and slight pull upwards using gentle soft pressure, until the worm is dislodged from its hole.
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Long Term Storage Of Dried Milk

Category : Equipment, Food

 powdermilkTypes of Nonfat Dry Milk

Regular and instant nonfat dry milk are made from skim milk that has been dried by spraying into hot air. Instant milk is regular milk which has been further processed causing it to clump together which results in a product that is easier to reconstitute with water than is regular nonfat dry milk. They both have the same nutrient composition. Regular nonfat dry milk is more compact and will require less storage space, however, it is harder to reconstitute. The most common type of dried milk to be found in grocery stores is instant nonfat dry milk. Dried whole milk may also be available, however because of the fat present, it will not store as well as nonfat dry milk. Dried buttermilk is available to be used in recipes calling for buttermilk. It will not keep quite as long as nonfat dried milk since is has a slightly higher fat level.
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How to Grow the Tomato and 115 Ways to Prepare it for the Table

Category : Equipment, Food

tomato1But few people realize what an important vegetable the tomato is. While, it is true that chemical analysis does not place it very high in the nutritive scale, if viewed from this angle alone its real value will be greatly underestimated.

For the reasons which follow, every normal person should make the tomato a very prominent part of the weekly diet:
• It is a vegetable that is easily grown.
• It yields well and keeps for a long time.
• It usually brings a fair price, because nearly everyone likes tomatoes. It contains distinct medicinal virtues (which are recognized by many authoritative books on household remedies), as “vegetable calomel.”
• It is both a relish and an appetizer as well as a food.
• Our soils can be made to bring enormous yields of tomatoes, superior in look, taste, and general appearance.
• They can be prepared in so many delicious ways that one can eat them every day in the week and not get tired of them.
• The old vines contain splendid dye-stuffs, which could be utilized as a by-product for dying fabrics of various kinds.

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Foodborne illnesses

Category : Equipment

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Growing vegetables organically

Category : Equipment, Food

sprout

Garden Location

 The garden should have a southern exposure (south side of your home) or be in an open field if at all possible. There should be a minimum of six hours of direct sunlight at the chosen location. A well- drained site even after a heavy rain is ideal. Poor drainage may be improved by regrading, digging ditches, installing a tile drain field, or adding organic matter.

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Food-Borne Illnesses

Category : Equipment, First Aid, Food, General Info

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Name of illness

What causes it

Symptoms

Characteristics of illness

Preventative measures

Salmonellosis Examples of foods involved: poultry, red meats, eggs, dried foods, and dairy products.

Salmonellae. This bacteria is wide- sprea d in nature and lives and grows in the intestinal tracts of human beings and animals.

Sever headache, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Infants, elderly, and persons with low resistance are most susceptible. Severe infections cause high fever and may even cause death.

Transmitted by eating contaminated food, or by contact with infected persons or carriers of the infection. Also transmitted by insects, rodents, and pets.

Onset: Usually within 12 to 36 hours.
Duration: 2 to 7 day s.

Salmonellae in food are destroyed by heating the food to 140°F and holding for 10 minutes or to higher temperatures for less time; for instance, 155°F for a few seconds. Refrigeration at 40°F inhibits the increase of Salmonellae, but they remain alive in foods in the refrigerator or freezer, and even in dried foods.

Perfringens Examples of foods involved: stews, soups, or gravies made from poultry or red meat.

Clostridium Perfringens. Spore-forming bacteria that grow in the absence of oxygen. Temperatures reached in thorough cooking of most foods are sufficient to destroy vegetative cells, but heat – resistant spores can survive.

Nausea without vomiting, diarrhea, acute inflammation of stomach and intestines.

Transmitted by eating food contaminated with abnormally large numbers of the bacteria.

Onset: Usually within 8 to 20 hours.
Duration: May persist for 24 hours.

To prevent growth of surviving bacteria in cooked meats, gravies, and meat casseroles that are to be eaten later, cool foods rapidly and refrigerate promptly at 40°F or below, or hold

them about 140°F.

Staphylococcal poisoning (frequently called staph)

Examples of foods involved: custards, egg salad, potato salad, chicken salad, macaroni salad, ham, salami, and cheese.

Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria fairly resistant to heat. Bacteria growing in food produce a toxin that is extremely resistant to heat.

Vomiting, diarrhea, prostration, abdominal cramps. Generally mild and often attributed to other causes.

Transmitted by food handlers who carry the bacteria and by eating food containing the toxin.

Growth of bacteria that produces toxin is inhibited by keeping hot foods above 140°F and cold foods at or below 40°F. Toxin is destroyed by boiling for several hours, or heating the food in a pressure cooker at 240°F for 30 minutes.

Botulism Examples of foods involved: canned low- acid foods, and smoked fish

Clostridium botulinum. Spore- forming organisms that grow and produce toxin in the absence of oxygen, such as in a sealed container.

Double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, progressive respiratory paralysis. Fatality rate is high, about 65% in the United States.

Transmitted by eating food containing the toxin.
Onset: Usually within 12 to 36 hours or longer.
Duration: 3 to 6 days.

Bacterial spores in food are destroyed by high temperatures obtained only in the pressure canner.* More than 6 hours is needed to kill the spores at boiling temperature (212°F). The toxin is destroyed by boiling for 10 to 20 minutes; time required depends on kind of food.

 

 

Container Herb Gardening

Category : Equipment, Food

Don’t use garden soil! Even the best garden soil is not the right choice for container growing. Though it may seem nutrient-rich and well-balanced, garden soil is always a problem. It will not provide adequate drainage and usually contains disease organisms, bacteria, and weed seeds. No matter how well it performs in the ground over the growing season, normal garden soil will soon form a compacted heavy mass, preventing root respiration and fertilizer absorption, resulting in stressed and hung12203ary plants.

Each plant should get enough water to moisten the entire container. You’ll know soil is saturated when water runs freely out the drainage holes. Poke a sharp stick into drainage holes occasionally to make sure they are working and be sure to empty any saucers you may use. If you find by testing with your fingers that the water is actually running down the sides of the container without wetting its contents, the soil mix has become compacted or overdry and water is unable to penetrate. Remedy this situation by poking many holes in the soil surface with a pencil or sharp thin stick to allow better drainage and then set a hose near the plant’s base and let it trickle very lightly for several hours. If the container
is not too heavy, you can also submerge it in a tub of water until it stops bubbling out air. Be careful; it will be heavy with water when lifted out!

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Building a Plumber’s Stove

Category : Equipment, Food, General Info


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Materials List

1/2 pint ( 8 fl oz ) paint or stain can with press-on lid

3-inch-wide by about 12-inch-long piece of sheet metal ( thin guage steel – not aluminum )

( 1 ) Radiator hose clamp – big enough to go around the can

( 1 ) Bag of cotton balls
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